TCP/IP States
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What is TCP/IP ?

The Internet protocol suite is the networking model and a set of communications protocols used for the Internet and similar networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP, because its most important protocols, the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP) were the first networking protocols defined in this standard

TCP/IP States

TCP protocol operations may be divided into three phases. Connections must be properly established in a multi-step handshake process before entering the data transfer phase. After data transmission is completed, the connection termination closes established virtual circuits and releases all allocated resources.

A TCP connection is managed by an operating system through a programming interface that represents the local end-point for communications, the Internet socket. During the lifetime of a TCP connection the local end-point undergoes a series of state changes.

LISTEN

(server) represents waiting for a connection request from any remote TCP and port.


SYN-SENT

(client) represents waiting for a matching connection request after having sent a connection request.


SYN-RECEIVED

(server) represents waiting for a confirming connection request acknowledgment after having both received and sent a connection request.


ESTABLISHED

(both server and client) represents an open connection, data received can be delivered to the user. The normal state for the data transfer phase of the connection.


FIN-WAIT-1

(both server and client) represents waiting for a connection termination request from the remote TCP, or an acknowledgment of the connection termination request previously sent.


FIN-WAIT-2

(both server and client) represents waiting for a connection termination request from the remote TCP.


CLOSE-WAIT 

(both server and client) represents waiting for a connection termination request from the local user.


CLOSING

(both server and client) represents waiting for a connection termination request acknowledgment from the remote TCP.


LAST-ACK

(both server and client) represents waiting for an acknowledgment of the connection termination request previously sent to the remote TCP (which includes an acknowledgment of its connection termination request).


TIME-WAIT

(either server or client) represents waiting for enough time to pass to be sure the remote TCP received the acknowledgment of its connection termination request


CLOSED

(both server and client) represents no connection state at all.

For more detailed information see this article.

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